Python most popular frameworks overview
Python is one of the most widely used programming languages in the IT field. It can be easily proved by the fact that right now, Python is at the very top of the TIOBE Index list. The TIOBE index indicates the popularity of all the existing programming languages. Python can be used to develop web products and to work with machine learning, databases, and graphical elements of operating systems. As you might guess, it gained popularity due to its versatility. Advantages such as easy-to-read syntax, plenty of libraries, and a large IT community make this coding language attractive not only to experienced developers but also to those who have just entered the world of programming.
Today, many well-known companies choose Python when it comes to building the back end of their digital products. Its infrastructure is suitable for building high-load services that deal with millions of users every day. Instagram, Dropbox, Pinterest, and Netflix are among numerous popular applications and websites written in Python.
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What is a Python framework?
Frameworks can be thought of as a template for creating a code. Writing code using them can be compared to drawing pictures on a checkered notepad. You can draw whatever you want, but you have rows and columns to make your job easier. Frameworks often contain collections of tools and libraries; they represent solutions to common problems and help establish a clear code structure. All these features save time for developers and help them focus on the logic of the project. To add, some frameworks have big communities of developers who help each other solve complex problems and answer the questions of the newcomers.
Like all the other frameworks, Python frameworks are a foundation that can be used for building up software. Nowadays there are thousands of frameworks written in Python and all of them can be divided into several types: full-stack, micro, and asynchronous frameworks. While full-stack frameworks contain templates and modules for the full development cycle, micro and asynchronous frameworks require more time and resources to code.
Developers usually choose the framework based on their own preferences and the specifics of the project. We have created a list of the top Python frameworks that are widely used for building various types of software. Let’s take a closer look.
Django is one of the first Python web frameworks ever invented. It entered the market in 2005 and was originally used as a news site engine. The Washington Post website is a common example of a Django-built website. It attracted a wide audience, so now it has a large developer community and detailed documentation. These features make it equally appealing to both experienced developers and newcomers who are just getting started with back-end programming. Django allows you to add the necessary functionality to your product with just one package and without having to find any additional libraries. Look at some Django features:
- it has its own ORM
- It has a built-in admin panel
- it can work with databases like MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, or SQLite
- it has caching and internalization systems
- it has an authentication system
Along with these features, Django allows you to set a high level of data security. Its tools help protect web products from cross-site scripting, cross-site request forgery, and SQL injection. Also, sites built with Django are better recognized by search engines, resulting in better SEO.
Our team has extensive experience using Django as a Python application framework. We have recently implemented it to create two applications: a management system for buildings under construction or maintenance and a hotel management system. We used Django for these two projects because applications built with it are highly scalable and secure. When we asked our CTO to describe his experience with Django, he had this to say:
"Django’s high-level ORM allows us to work with crud operations quicker and with a greater level of convenience. Also, a declarative layer of serialization simplifies the processing of request and response data. All in all, our team loves Django a lot, and we will continue to use it in our projects."
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Flask is another Python backend framework that is only five years younger than Django. While the latter is packed with features and allows developers to create complex applications, Flask has fewer features and can be scaled up by adding the necessary tools and extensions. It is not as big and detailed as Django or other full-stack frameworks, which is why it is considered a Python microframework in the modern IT community. However, websites like Pinterest and Linkedin are built using this technology. Flask deals with the server side of the products, but not with how the interface looks, so it’s a back-end technology. Its main features are the following:
- an in-built development server and debugger
- integrated support for unit testing
- RESTful request dispatching
- usage of Jinja templating
- support for secure cookies
- 100% compliance with WSGI 1.0
- detailed documentation
- compatibility with Google App Engine
- extensions that allow extending functionality
Unlike Django which was created for services used by many users at one moment, Flask can be effective with products that display static content like blogs, weather apps, or portfolio websites. When developers use Flask, they can scale their products by adding extensions to them.
CherryPy is another Python-based web framework with open-source code. With its help, developers can build web apps in much the same way, as they would build an object-oriented program, which results in smaller source code in less time. This factor makes CherryPy one of the fastest Python web frameworks to work with. That’s what we know about CherryPy:
- it allows launching several HTTP servers at the same time
- a flexible plugin system is available
- ready-made tools for authentication, caching, sessions, and static content are available
- it works on Android, Python 2.7+, Python 3.1+, PyPy, and Jython
Digital products created with CherryPy are quick and cost-effective to deploy as it has its own HTTP server for hosting applications. Also, CherryPy has a dedicated community in Google Groups, where CherryPy users can ask questions, chat with other developers, and share their experience with newcomers.
Falcon is a web stack Python framework that can become a suitable substitute for Django and Flask. It can be used for creating the back end of applications and HTTP APIs. The speed and reliability of Falcon are the main advantages that draw the attention of developers. Its minimalistic design results in a quicker response to requests, making Falcon one of the fastest backend frameworks. To add, the critical systems of Linkedin and PayPal are built with Falcon, which proves its reliability. Also, Falcon helps build clear APIs and supports HTTP and REST architecture. Let’s take a look at some basic features of Falcon:
- it supports PyPy
- it fully supports Unicode
- it supports Cython
- it has URL templates
FastAPI is a Python web server framework. Using it, developers can create API servers with built-in validation, serialization, and asynchrony. FastAPI is based on two other frameworks: Starlette, which works with the web, and Pydantic, which is responsible for validation. Here are some key features of FastAPI:
- it can work with GraphQL
- it has built-in WebSockets
- has built-in authentication and supports JWT and OAuth2
- it has automatic documentation
All these features are described in detail in the documentation, which defines many aspects, including testing and debugging.
However, the FastAPI community is small, and sometimes this framework is difficult to set up. That’s why it may seem too complicated for beginners.
As we mentioned earlier, Python and its frameworks are truly versatile. While some developers use Python for building the backend of web products, others use it to build apps and even games. The following two technologies are suitable for mobile development.
Kivy is a Python mobile app framework that can be used for creating games and cross-platform GUI apps. With its help, developers can create apps with graphic interfaces using Python, these apps can be compatible with different platforms like Windows, macOS, Linux as well as iOS and Android. Kivy is a cross-platform framework and that is its main advantage. This means that the code created with Kivy is reusable and it can run equally well on all the platforms mentioned above. That’s why developers can implement their Python skills to create mobile apps without the need to study a platform-specific language like Swift, Kotlin, or others.
- it supports multi-touching
- hardware acceleration of the graphic interface is available
- it has a lot of GUI widgets
- custom widgets are available
- it has its own designing language that can be used for quick prototyping
- it enables building packages for both desktop operating systems and iOS and Android devices
BeeWare is another framework that is often used to develop desktop and mobile applications. Its main feature is that it can be used for building apps that look and feel native to the platform they are built for. "Write code once and implement it everywhere” is the main principle of BeeWare, as you can reuse the same code base to create both desktop and mobile products. BeeWare can be used on commercial projects, as its licensing terms are quite simple. However, BeeWare has one major disadvantage: it is still not fully developed, so you can encounter some inconveniences when working with it. These are the main features of BeeWare:
- an API for accessing native GUI widgets
- an API for accessing platform-specific libraries
- ability to deploy applications on multiple platforms
What are the main features of PyScript?
- Simplified and clean API
- The system of scalable components
- The usage of packages like Pandas and NumPy is allowed
To sum up, Python and its frameworks give developers freedom to create a variety of digital products, and their capability only grows. With their help, experienced developers save their time and resources, while newcomers can sharpen their skills and solve complicated tasks.
Our team has profound experience in working with both front-end and back-end frameworks. We provide full-cycle IT services for startups and small-sized businesses. We can design an interface, develop it and maintain it after the project work is over. So, if you are searching for a team that could bring your ideas to life, just contact us!